Most people who eat a healthy diet should get enough potassium naturally. However, many Americans don't. While the typical American diet, which is high in sodium-containing processed foods and low in fruits and vegetables, contains about two times more sodium than potassium, many health experts recommend taking in at least five times more potassium than sodium. So the average U.S. intake of potassium is lower than it should be. 



Chromium potentiates insulin action and as such influences carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. Chromium regulates blood sugar, and helps insulin transport glucose into cells, where it can be used for energy.With a deficiency of chromium, the chances of getting diabetes increase. Chromium can also help raise HDL cholesterol levels, and may play a role in preventing heart disease.



The 10 to 20 mg of manganese contained in the adult human body are concentrated in tissues rich in mitochondria. Manganese is a component of many enzymes. Manganese is associated with the formation of connective and skeletal tissues, growth and reproduction, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Manganese helps your body utilize several key nutrients such as biotin, thiamin, ascorbic acid, and choline; keep your bones strong and healthy; help your body synthesize fatty acids and cholestorol; maintain normal blood sugar levels; promote optimal function of your thyroid gland; maintain the health of your nerves; protect your cells from free-radical damage. 



Regions of North America identified as low in selenium content are the Northeast, Pacific, Southwest, and coastal plain of the southeastern region of the United States, as well as north central and eastern Canada. The lowest selenium content of soil exists in a few regions of China, especially in Keshan, where severe selenium deficiency was first reported in a human population in 1979. Other areas with low selenium content include parts of Finland and New Zealand. 



Iodine deficiency is the most common preventable cause of mental retardation in the world. Use of iodized salt or the oral administration of a single dose of iodized oil, and weekly iodine supplements are effective. Use of iodized salt should be encouraged during pregnancy, especially through the end of the second trimester. 



Copper, a normal constituent of blood, is another established essential micronutrient. Recent interest in copper has increased because of the potential risk of deficiency. Concentrations of copper are is highest in the liver, muscle, brain, heart, and kidney. Muscle contains almost 40% of all the copper in the body. Deficiency develops slowly as copper stores becomes depleted. Deficiencies have not been reported in otherwise healthy humans consuming a varied diet. Bone changes, including osteoporosis, metaphyseal spur information, and soft tissue calcification in infants receiving prolong TPN may resolve with copper supplementation. 



The most readily available form of zinc occurs in animal flesh, particularly red meats and poultry. Meat intake is frequently low among preschoolers, occasionally because of personal preferences or socioeconomic reasons, but usually because meats are displaced by cereal foods, milk and milk products that children tend to prefer. Observation led to the fortification of infant and children’s foods, especially cereals, with zinc. Milk is a good source of zinc, but high intakes of calcium from milk may interfere with the absorption of iron and zinc. The phytates from a whole grains in unleavened breads may limit zinc absorption in some populations. 


Fluoride is a natural element found in nearly all drinking water and soil, although the fluoride content varies greatly throughout the world. Some well water has much more fluoride than other water, so families who use well water need to monitor fluoride levels periodically to make sure that levels are not in the toxic range. Although fluoride is not considered an essential element, this anion is known to be important for the health of bones and teeth. 



Iron deficiency, the precursor of iron deficiency anemia, is the most common of all nutritional deficiency diseases. In the United States and worldwide, iron deficiency anemia is prevalent among children and woman of childbearing age. The groups considered to be at greatest risk for iron deficiency anemia are infants younger than 2 years of age, adolescent girls, pregnant woman, and older adults. Pregnant teenagers are frequently at high risk because of poor eating habits and continuing growth. Women in their childbearing years who are iron deficient benefit from either a diet rich in iron-containing foods or supplements. 


Sulfur exists in the body as a constituent of three amino acids – cysteine, cystine, and methionine and of many other organic molecules. It exists as part of these organic molecules in all cells and extracellular compartments such as connective tissues. 



The adult human body contains approximately 20 to 28 g of magnesium, of which 60% is found in bones, 26% in muscles, and the remainder in soft tissues and body fluids. Gender differences in the body content of magnesium begin before puberty. 


Approximately 700 g of phosphorus exists in adult tissues, and about 85% is present in the skeleton and teeth as calcium phosphate crystals. The remaining 15% exists in the metabolically active pool in every cell in the body and in extracellular fluid compartment. 



Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, makes up 2% of the body weight and 39% of total body minerals. Approximately 99% of the calcium exists in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1% of calcium is in the blood and extracellular fluids and within the cells of all tissues, where it regulates many important metabolic functions. Bone is a dynamic tissue that returns calcium and other minerals to the extracellular fluids and blood on demand. Bone takes up calcium and other minerals from the blood when they are consumed. The calcium in teeth cannot be mobilized back to the blood because the minerals of erupted teeth are fixed for life. Late in life bone retention of calcium derived from food and supplements is limited unless the calcium is consumed along with sufficient vitamin D or bone-conserving drug. 

Why we need minerals

Just like vitamins, minerals help your body grow, develop, and stay healthy.

Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making hormones and regulating your heartbeat.


Australian food habits

The traditional, Anglo-inspired dinner of ‘meat and three veg’ followed by stewed fruit and custard jelly has in the last 20 years been ousted by a culinary amalgam of all that Australia’s multicultural society and multifarious landscapes have to offer. 


Can‘t lose weight? You need a motivation

People are motivated to change through their ability to manage their own behaviors.

Different strategies are needed to offer individualized guidance. We have to raise awareness, give information, provide dietary guidelines, correct misinformation, encourage clients to visualize themselves in a healthier lifestyle, substitue positive behavior for unhealthy ones, identify barriers to success, support a strong sense of self-efficacy. 


Eating guide during pregnancy

A healthy pregnancy diet will promote your baby's growth and development. What pregnant women eat has an affect on the pregnancy, on the fetal development, and on the health of the mother and child.



Vegetarians diets are increased in popularity. Those who choose them may be motivated by philosophic, religious, or ecological concerns or a desire to have a healthier lifestyle. Considerable evidence attests to the health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Studies of Seventh-Day Adventists indicate, that the diet results in lower rates of type 2 diabetes, breast and colon cancer, cardiovascular and gallbladder disease. 

Muslim food customs

Islam promotes the concept of ‘eating to live’. Muslims are advised to stop eating while they are still hungry and always to share food. Although many foods are allowed, certain codes must be observed, and some dietary restrictions exist. 

Jewish food customs

The Jewish dietary laws are biblical ordinances that include rules regarding food, chiefly about the selection, slaughter, preparation of meat. Animals allowed to be eaten (clean) are quadrupeds that have cloven hooves and chew cud, specifically cattle, sheep, goats and deer. Permissible fowl are chicken, turkey, goose, pheasant, duck. All animals and fowl must be inspected for disease and killed by a ritual slaughterer according to specific rules. Only the forequarter of the quadruped may be used, except when the hip sinew of the thigh vein can be removed, in which case the hindquarter is also allowed. 


Planning diet for Pacific Islanders

New islanders who arrived around 3000 B.C. are believed to have introduced agriculture to the Pacific region. Bringing with them seeds and livestock from the Asian mainland, they planted and harvested crops and bred animals. They introduced foods including bananas, coconuts, sweet potatoes, yams, and breadfruit. The animals they brought with them included dogs, chickens, and pigs. 

Planning diet for Filipino

Filipinos love to eat, and since they're naturally hospitable and gregarious, food is the basis of their social life. Because the feeling of fulfillment after eating rice, their staple ingredient, is relatively short-lived, they eat three meals a day and two snacks in between. Filipinos, especially country folk, rise early. Some will eat a segundo almuerzo (second breakfast) around 10:30, plus a merienda, or mid-afternoon snack. Rural folk eat their main meal at midday, while city dwellers emphasize the evening meal. The diet of poor families is usually rice, fish, vegetables, interspersed with starchy snacks. At fiesta time, all families try to eat meat.

Planning diet for Native American

Native Americans (American Indians and Alaska Natives) often live on federal Indian reservations and in small rural communities. In this culture food has great religious and social significance for celebrations and ceremonies. Food is more of a social or religious obligation than simple nourishment. Common foods may be prepared and used in different ways in various regions and tribal organizations. Fry bread (fried dough) is a central part of American Indian cuisine and is eaten with foods such as stews, soups, bean dishes. Fried foods are generally prepared with lard. 

Planning diet for Northern European

Northern Europe, including Scandinavia, Ireland and the United Kingdom, has a mouthwatering supply of food and beverages. Fish and chips, Swedish meatballs and shepherd’s pie are just a sampling of the regional offerings, which are usually prepared on the hearty side to warm people up from the cold climate. Because of the surrounding bodies of water, fish is essential to most Northern European cuisines. 

Planning diet for Southern European

The cuisine of Southern Europe covers many countries, but the food of Italy and Spain clearly leads the way. The food of Italy can take several large books to describe. It is a favorite of people all over the world. Italy is known for its creative use of pasta and different types of sauce. 

Planning diet for Central European and Russian

Central European and Russian diet comprises mainly non vegetarian foods. The food habit of the common people in this area is more or less the same. With the animal protein they largely include dairy products, especially high milk foods in their regular meals. 

Planning diet for Blacks (Southern United States)

African Americans are numerically the largest minority group, although the Latino population is expected to be larger than the African-American population by the middle of the next century.

Traditional African-American fare, sometimes referred to as “soul food,” is based in part on food practices and customs. Many of these customs and practices are shared by white Americans in the southern United States, particularly those of lower socioeconomic level or living in rural areas. 

Planning diet for Mexican

Hispanics are the most rapidly growing ethnic group in the United states, and Mexican-Americans are the largest subgroup of Hispanics. Hispanic cuisine is based on the concept of foods having ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ properties and on beliefs about the contribution of food to health and wellbeing. 


Planning diet for Central American

The food of Central America is astounding in both its variety and flavor. Some of the world's favorite foodstuffs — corn, beans, peppers — orginated in this part of the world.

Planning diet for Caribbean Islands

Caribbean cuisine is a fusion of African, Amerindian, European, East Indian, and Chinese cuisine. These traditions were brought from the many homelands of this region's population. In addition, the population has created styles that are unique to the region. 

Planning diet for Cuban and Puerto Rican

Puerto Rican and Cuban cooking is similar to both Spanish and Mexican cuisine, it is a unique tasty blend of Spanish, African, Taíno, and American influences, using such indigenous seasonings and ingredients as coriander, papaya, cacao, nispero, apio, plantains, and yampee. The Spanish contributed culinary techniques and wheat products and introduced pork and cattle. The tropical climate required the importation of preserved food; dried codfish was long a dietary mainstay. Candied fruits and fruits preserved in syrup are also traditional. Rum and coffee are the preferred beverages.

Planning diet for South American

South Americans are culturally influenced by its indigenous peoples, the historic connection with Iberian Peninsula and Africa, and the impact of mass culture from the United States of America, alongside waves of immigrants from around the globe. 

Planning diet for Korean

Korean food is delectable, hearty, and distinct. One of the most interesting characteristics about Korean food is that the preparation of it often involves the process of fermentation. Fermentation was frequently utilized by enlightened spiritual practitioners of ancient Korea to create food that would benefit all people. In the old days, fermented foods such as soy sauce were important source of protein for Koreans, and they remain popular even to this day. 


Planning diet for Japanese

Japanese take great pride in the quality and purity of their food. Discussions about food can be very serious, passionate and deeply analytical. Foreign visitors to Tokyo describe the food "sublime, delicate and carefully presented." 

Planning diet for Chinese

In Chinese culture food plays a vital role in preventing and treating diseases and addressing certain health conditions. The traditional Chinese diet is much richer in carbohydrates and includes various meats, poultry, and seafood in small quantities. 


Planning diet for Southeast Asians

During the past few decades the number of Southeast Asian refugees has increased dramatically worldwide. In the US immigrants from Southeast Asia have become the third largest ethnic group after blacks and Hispanics. Among these immigrants are numerous groups, each with a district language, culture and food habits. 

The Mediterranean Diet, is it healthy for you?

The Mediterranean Diet has received attention because of its potential for protecting the body against cardiovascular disease and cancers. The diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and sources of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.